Disease Profile

Aniridia

Prevalence ?
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.
1-9 / 100 000

3,310 - 29,790

US Estimated

1-9 / 100 000

46,215 - 5,135

Europe Estimated

Age of Onset

Neonatal

ICD-10

Q13.1

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant ?A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive ?Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked dominant ?X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked recessive ?Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic ?Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

Multigenic or multifactor ?Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Categories

Eye diseases

Summary

Aniridia is an eye disorder characterized by a complete or partial absence of the colored part of the eye (the iris) and is usually associated with foveal hypoplasia (underdevelopment of the part of the eye responsible for sharp central vision). This combination can lead to decreased visual acuity and involuntary eye movements (nystagmus) in affected infants. People with aniridia may also have other eye problems including increased pressure in the eye (glaucoma), clouding of the lens of the eye (cataracts), and abnormalities of the cornea. [1][2] Many of these eye problems contribute to progressive vision loss in affected individuals. Occasionally, people with aniridia have behavioral problems, developmental delay, and problems detecting odors.[2] Aniridia may occur either as an isolated eye abnormality or as part of the Wilms tumor-aniridia-genital anomalies-retardation (WAGR) syndrome. Isolated aniridia may be caused by mutations in the PAX6 gene and is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern.[2]

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO
Aniridia
Absent iris
0000526
Autosomal dominant inheritance
0000006
Cataract
Clouding of the lens of the eye
Cloudy lens

[ more ]

0000518
Glaucoma
0000501
Glucose intolerance
0001952
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
Underdevelopment of part of brain called corpus callosum
0002079
Hypoplasia of the fovea
0007750
Increased proinsulin:insulin ratio
0031883
Nystagmus
Involuntary, rapid, rhythmic eye movements
0000639
Opacification of the corneal stroma
0007759
Optic nerve hypoplasia
0000609
Polymicrogyria
More grooves in brain
0002126

Diagnosis

Making a diagnosis for a genetic or rare disease can often be challenging. Healthcare professionals typically look at a person’s medical history, symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory test results in order to make a diagnosis. The following resources provide information relating to diagnosis and testing for this condition. If you have questions about getting a diagnosis, you should contact a healthcare professional.

Testing Resources

  • The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides information about the genetic tests for this condition. The intended audience for the GTR is health care providers and researchers. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.
  • Orphanet lists international laboratories offering diagnostic testing for this condition.

    Treatment

    In childhood, treatment for aniridia involves regular eye examinations and corrective lenses when necessary. Additional measures such as tinted lenses to reduce light sensitivity, low-vision aids, and the use of eye patches for amblyopia may be indicated. Children with Wilms tumor-aniridia-genital anomalies-retardation (WAGR) syndrome require regular renal ultrasounds, hearing tests, and evaluation by a pediatric oncologist. Additional treatment will depend on the specific symptoms present in each individual.[1][2]

    Management Guidelines

    • The Rare Best Practices RareGUIDELINE, funded by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme, provides clinical practice guidelines for Aniridia. Guidelines on all aspects of care are included from diagnostic tests to treatment recommendations. Before you read the guideline, you can click on the "Guideline Evaluation" link to find out what others thought of the quality of the guideline.

      Organizations

      Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

      Organizations Supporting this Disease

        Learn More

        These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

        Where to Start

        • Genetics Home Reference (GHR) contains information on Aniridia. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.
        • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.

          In-Depth Information

          • GeneReviews provides current, expert-authored, peer-reviewed, full-text articles describing the application of genetic testing to the diagnosis, management, and genetic counseling of patients with specific inherited conditions.
          • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
          • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
          • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
          • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
          • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Aniridia. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

            References

            1. National LIbrary of Medicine. Aniridia. Genetics Home Reference. June 2009; https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/aniridia. Accessed 10/19/2016.
            2. Hingorani M, Moore A. Aniridia. GeneReviews. November 14, 2103; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1360/. Accessed 10/19/2016.