Aplasia cutis congenita
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.
Age of Onset
Autosomal dominant ?A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease
Autosomal recessive ?Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype
X-linked dominant ?X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.
X-linked recessive ?Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder
Mitochondrial or multigenic ?Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.
Multigenic or multifactor ?Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.
Other Names (AKA)
Aplasia cutis congenita nonsyndromic; Congenital defect of skull and scalp; Scalp defect congenital
Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Skin Diseases
Aplasia cutis congenita is a condition in which there is
This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.
|Medical Terms||Other Names||
|80%-99% of people have these symptoms|
|Aplasia cutis congenita over the scalp vertex||0004471|
|Calvarial skull defect||
[ more ]
|30%-79% of people have these symptoms|
Open skin sore
|5%-29% of people have these symptoms|
|Abnormality of bone mineral density||0004348|
|Prolonged bleeding time||0003010|
[ more ]
|Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO|
Related diseases are conditions that have similar signs and symptoms. A health care provider may consider these conditions in the table below when making a diagnosis. Please note that the table may not include all the possible conditions related to this disease.
Conditions with similar signs and symptoms from Orphanet
Differential diagnoses include traumatic lesions, localized scalp infections, dermoid cyst (facial, cervical, nasal or involving the central nervous system), isolated encephalocele, meningocele and nodular neuronal heterotopia. As the child grows and scarring occurs, sebaceous nevus, nevus psiloliparus, localized scleroderma and other types of cicatricial alopecia should be considered. Hypertrophic scars can be mistaken for scalp tumors. ACC can occur in association with inherited epidermolysis bullosa and with epidermal and organoid nevi (didymosis aplasticosebacea). It may also form part of numerous syndromes including: chromosomal abnormalities (mainly trisomy 13), Adams-Oliver syndromes, Johanson-Blizzard, SCALP syndrome, focal facial dermal dysplasia, oculocerebrocutaneous syndrome, scalp-ear-nipple syndrome, Toriello-Lacassie-Droste syndrome, aplasia cutis congenita-intestinal lymphangiectasia syndrome, aplasia cutis-myopia syndrome, cutis verticis gyrata-thyroid aplasia-intellectual disability syndrome, and others.
Visit the Orphanet disease page for more information.
Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.
- Contact a Family is a UK-wide charity providing advice, information and support to individuals affected by various health conditions. They enable parents, families, and individuals to get in contact with others, on a local, national, and international basis. Each year they reach at least 275,000 families. Click on Contact a Family to view the Making Contact page for aplasia cutis congenita.
These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.
- DermNet NZ is an online resource about skin diseases developed by the New Zealand Dermatological Society Incorporated. DermNet NZ provides information about this condition.
- Genetics Home Reference contains information on Aplasia cutis congenita. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.
- The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.
- Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
- The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
- Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
- Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
- PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Aplasia cutis congenita. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.
- Tamara Buchel, Wendy Devaul, Keith Frey. Photo Quiz: Newborn with a Scalp Lesion. American Family Physician. 2005 Oct 15; 72(8):1589-1571. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1015/p1569.html.
- Joseph G. Morelli. Chapter 647 Cutaneous Defects. In: Robert M. Kleigman. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 18th edition. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007;
- Wan J. Aplasia Cutis Congenita. Medscape Reference. March 2, 2016; https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1110134-overview.
- Mary Wu Chang, Seth J. Orlow. Neonatal, Pediatric, and Adolescent Dermatology. In: Irwin M. Freedberg, Arthur Z. Eisen, Klaus Wolff, K. Frank Austen, Lowell A. Goldsmith, and Stephen I. Katz. Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine, 6th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2003;
- Duan X, Yang G, Yu D, Yu C, Wang B, Guo Y. Aplasia cutis congenita: A case report and literature review. Exp Ther Med. 2015 Nov; 10(5):1893-1895. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4665749/.
- Ngan V. Aplasia cutis. DermNet NZ. September 3, 2015; https://www.dermnetnz.org/topics/aplasia-cutis/.
- MR Vijayashankar. Aplasia cutis congenita: A case report. Dermatology Online Journal. 2005; https://dermatology.cdlib.org/113/case_presentations/aplasia/vijayashankar.html.