Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.
Age of Onset
Autosomal dominant ?A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease
Autosomal recessive ?Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype
X-linked dominant ?X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.
X-linked recessive ?Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder
Mitochondrial or multigenic ?Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.
Multigenic or multifactor ?Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.
Other Names (AKA)
BHD syndrome; Fibrofolliculomas with trichodiscomas and acrochordons; BHD;
Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Kidney and Urinary Diseases; Lung Diseases;
This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.
|Medical Terms||Other Names||
|80%-99% of people have these symptoms|
|30%-79% of people have these symptoms|
|Abnormality of retinal pigmentation||0007703|
Multiple fatty lumps
|5%-29% of people have these symptoms|
|Medullary thyroid carcinoma||0002865|
Cancer starting in small tubes in kidneys
|1%-4% of people have these symptoms|
Spontaneous collapsed lung
|Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO|
|Large intestinal polyposis||0030255|
|Multiple pulmonary cysts||0005948|
Making a diagnosis for a genetic or rare disease can often be challenging. Healthcare professionals typically look at a person’s medical history, symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory test results in order to make a diagnosis. The following resources provide information relating to diagnosis and testing for this condition. If you have questions about getting a diagnosis, you should contact a healthcare professional.
- The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides information about the genetic tests for this condition. The intended audience for the GTR is health care providers and researchers. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.
If an individual with BHD experiences any symptoms of a collapsed lung such as chest pain, discomfort, or shortness of breath they should immediately go to a physician for a chest x-ray or CT scan. Therapy of a collapsed lung depends on the symptoms, how long it has been present, and the extent of any underlying lung conditions. It is thought that collapsed lung can be prevented by avoiding scuba diving, piloting airplanes, and cigarette smoking.
Individuals with BHD who have a history of multiple instances of collapsed lung or signs of lung disease are encouraged to see a lung specialist (
Related diseases are conditions that have similar signs and symptoms. A health care provider may consider these conditions in the table below when making a diagnosis. Please note that the table may not include all the possible conditions related to this disease.
Conditions with similar signs and symptoms from Orphanet
The differential diagnosis of the multiple firm papules of BHD is dependent on whether the skin lesions are epithelial, mesodermal or mixed in origin. BHD patients and their relatives should seek genetic counseling and testing if possible.
Visit the Orphanet disease page for more information.
Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.
These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.
- Genetics Home Reference (GHR) contains information on Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.
- The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.
- GeneReviews provides current, expert-authored, peer-reviewed, full-text articles describing the application of genetic testing to the diagnosis, management, and genetic counseling of patients with specific inherited conditions.
- Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
- The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
- Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
- Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
- PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.
- Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. Genetics Home Reference (GHR). 01/2013; https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/birt-hogg-dube-syndrome. Accessed 7/1/2015.
- Schmidt LS. Birt-Hogg-Dube Syndrome. National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). 2012; https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/birt-hogg-dube-syndrome/. Accessed 7/5/2014.
- Toro JR. Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome. GeneReviews. 08/07/2014; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1522/.
- Toro JR, Pautler SE, Stewart L, Glenn GM, Weinreich M, Toure O, Wei MH, Schmidt LS, Davis L, Zbar B, Choyke P, Steinberg SM, Nguyen DM, Linehan WM. Lung cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax, and genetic associations in 89 families with Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2007; 175(10):1044-1053. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17322109. Accessed 6/27/2014.
- Menko FH, van Steensel, MA, Giraud S, Friis-Hansen L, Richard S, Ungari S, Nordenskjöld M, O Hansen TV, Solly J, Maher, ER. Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome: diagnosis and management. The Lancet Oncology. 2009; 10(12):1199-1206. https://www.bhdsyndrome.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/Menko-et-al-20091.pdf. Accessed 6/27/2014.