Rare Infectious Disease News

Disease Profile

Cholera

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.
<1 / 1 000 000

< 331

US Estimated

< 514

Europe Estimated

Age of onset

All ages

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ICD-10

A00.0 A00.1 A00.9

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

Vibrio cholerae infection

Categories

Bacterial infections

Summary

Cholera is an infection of the small intestines that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera. The condition can range from mild to severe and many affected people may have no obvious signs or symptoms. Approximately 5-10% of infected people will have severe disease with watery diarrhea and vomiting leading to rapid fluid loss, dehydration, and shock. If left untreated, this can cause acute renal failure, severe electrolyte imbalances, coma, or even death. People develop cholera when they eat food or drink water that is contaminated with Vibrio cholera. The condition occurs most often in places that lack water treatment and have poor sanitation and inadequate hygiene. Treatment aims to prevent dehydration and replace the fluids and salts that are lost through diarrhea.[1][2][3]

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Diarrhea
Watery stool
0002014
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Decreased urine output
0011037
Dehydration
0001944
Hypocalcemia
Low blood calcium levels
0002901
Hypokalemia
Low blood potassium levels
0002900
Hyponatremia
Low blood sodium levels
0002902
Hypotension
Low blood pressure
0002615
Muscle spasm
0003394
Muscle weakness
Muscular weakness
0001324
Tachycardia
Fast heart rate
Heart racing
Racing heart

[ more ]

0001649
Vomiting
Throwing up
0002013
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Abdominal cramps
0032155
Achlorhydria
0032448
Acute kidney injury
0001919
Deeply set eye
Deep set eye
Deep-set eyes
Sunken eye

[ more ]

0000490
Hyperventilation
Rapid breathing
0002883
Hypoglycemia
Low blood sugar
0001943
Hypovolemic shock
0031274
Irritability
Irritable
0000737
Lactic acidosis
Increased lactate in body
0003128
Lethargy
0001254
Loss of consciousness
Passing out
0007185
Palmoplantar cutis laxa
Excessive wrinkled skin of palms and soles
Increased wrinkles of palms and soles
Wrinkled palms and soles
Wrinkled skin of hands and feet

[ more ]

0007517
Premature birth
Premature delivery of affected infants
Preterm delivery

[ more ]

0001622
Seizure
0001250
Spontaneous abortion
0005268
Tachypnea
Increased respiratory rate or depth of breathing
0002789
1%-4% of people have these symptoms
Aspiration pneumonia
0011951
Fever
0001945
Stroke
0001297

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

Where to Start

  • You can obtain information on this topic from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC is recognized as the lead federal agency for developing and applying disease prevention and control, environmental health, and health promotion and education activities designed to improve the health of the people of the United States.
  • Mayo Clinic has an information page on Cholera.
  • MedlinePlus was designed by the National Library of Medicine to help you research your health questions, and it provides more information about this topic.

In-Depth Information

  • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
  • MeSH® (Medical Subject Headings) is a terminology tool used by the National Library of Medicine. Click on the link to view information on this topic.
  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Cholera. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

References

  1. Sajeev Handa, MBBCh, BAO, LRCSI, LRCPI. Cholera. Medscape Reference. February 2016; https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/962643-overview.
  2. Cholera. MedlinePlus. May 2014; https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000303.htm.
  3. Cholera Vibrio cholerae infection. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. October 2014; https://www.cdc.gov/cholera/index.html.