Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.
Age of Onset
Autosomal dominant ?A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease
Autosomal recessive ?Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype
X-linked dominant ?X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.
X-linked recessive ?Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder
Mitochondrial or multigenic ?Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.
Multigenic or multifactor ?Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.
Other Names (AKA)
Autoerythrocyte sensitization; Psychogenic purpura; Autoerythrocyte sensitization purpura;
Behavioral and mental disorders; Skin Diseases
Episodes of bruising may begin with sensations such as burning, stinging or pain, and may be accompanied by a general feeling of malaise or fatigue. This may be followed by warmth, puffiness, redness and/or itching over the affected area. In some cases, episodes may also be accompanied by fever, headache, or gastrointestinal symptoms. Sometimes, pain and swelling is severe enough to cause immobilization of the affected body part. People have reported that the pain generally subsides when the bruises appear.
Bruises typically go away in approximately 7-10 days. However, relapses and remissions of bruising episodes can last for many years. In some cases, symptoms of the condition persist and may worsen. Subsequent episodes are most likely to occur after some sort of physical trauma or stress.
- response to stress stress, or distress, is associated with increased levels of glucocorticoids and catecholamines in the body, which may alter processes such as fibrinolysis (the breakdown of blood clots)
- increased fibrinolysis an increase in the activity of
tissueplasminogen activator (tPA), which can cause a cascade of events that may lead to bleeding
- autoerythrocyte sensitization an autoimmune reaction to the affected person's own
red blood cells(erythrocytes)
It has been proposed that certain medications used to alter the tonus of the capillaries (how they contract), the permeability of the vessels, and/or the flowing properties of the blood may be useful for some people.
Symptomatic therapy may be helpful for severe, general symptoms. Several approaches including antihistamines,
These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.
- The Merck Manual for health care professionals provides information on Gardner-Diamond syndrome.
- The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
- Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
- PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Gardner-Diamond syndrome. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.
- Meeder R, Bannister S. Gardner-Diamond syndrome: Difficulties in the management of patients with unexplained medical symptoms. Paediatr Child Health. 2006 Sep;11(7):416-9.
- Jafferany M, Bhattacharya G. Psychogenic Purpura (Gardner-Diamond Syndrome). Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2015 Jan 22;17(1).
- Benjamin P Geisler, Bruce J Dezube. Psychogenic purpura (Gardner-Diamond syndrome). UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate; December, 2015;
- David J. Kuter. Autoerythrocyte Sensitization. Merck Manual. September, 2014; https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/hematology-and-oncology/bleeding-due-to-abnormal-blood-vessels/autoerythrocyte-sensitization.
- OL Ivanov, AN Lvov, AV Michenko, J Künzel, P Mayser, U Gieler. Autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome (Gardner–Diamond syndrome): review of the literature. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. 2009; 23(5):499-504. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19192020.
- Jafferany M, Bhattacharya G. Psychogenic Purpura (Gardner-Diamond Syndrome). Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. January 22, 2015; 17(1):