Rare Infectious Disease News

Disease Profile


Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

Delayed gastric emptying


Gastroparesis, or delayed gastric emptying, is a disorder where the food does not move or moves very slowly from the stomach to the small intestine. In gastroparesis, the muscles of the stomach do not work well and digestion takes an abnormally long time. Symptoms of gastroparesis include bloating, nausea, vomiting, weight loss due to poor absorption of nutrients, early fullness while eating meals, heartburn, and abdominal pain. Complications can occur including dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities, blood sugar abnormalities, malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, stomach ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux, esophagitis, small bowel bacterial overgrowth, and metabolic bone disease. In rare cases, food that is poorly digested can collect in the stomach and form a bezoar, a mass of undigested material that can cause a blockage in the gastrointestinal tract. Gastroparesis is more common in people with diabetes and those who have had recent stomach or intestinal surgery.[1][2] Other causes include infections, hormonal disorders like hypothyroidism, connective tissue disorders like scleroderma, autoimmune conditions, neuromuscular diseases, psychological conditions, and eating disorders. In some cases, the cause is not known (idiopathic).[2][3] Diagnosis is made on the basis of a radiographic gastric emptying test.[3]

Treatment may include dietary modifications such as adjusting the timing and size of meals, consuming more liquid-based meals, or avoiding foods that are more difficult to digest (such as fatty foods, or foods with too much fiber). Other treatments may include endoscopic procedures to break the bezoar apart and remove it, feeding tubes, surgery, placement of an electrical stimulator, and medication such as metoclopramide, domperidone, erythromycin and cisapride. With proper management many people with gastroparesis can live a relatively normal life. However, others may not tolerate treatment and may experience significant complications, a decreased quality of life, and reduced survival. [1][2][3]


Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Supporting this Disease

    Organizations Providing General Support

      Learn more

      These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

      Where to Start


        1. Gastroparesis. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/gastroparesis/definition-facts.
        2. Fox J & Foxx-Orenstein A. Gastroparesis. American College of Gastroenterology. December 2012; https://patients.gi.org/topics/gastroparesis/.
        3. Gastroparesis. National Organization for Rare Diseases (NORD). 2012; https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/gastroparesis/.
        4. Woodhouse S., Hebbard G., Knowles SR. Psychological controversies in gastroparesis:a systematic review. World J Gastroenterol. 2017; 23 (7):1298 1309. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28275310. Accessed 5/15/2018.
        5. Lacy BE, Crowell MD, Mathis C, et. al.. Gastroparesis: quality of life and health care utilization. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018; 52 (1):20-24. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27775961. Accessed 5/15/2018.
        6. Stein B, Everhart KK, Lacy BE. Gastroparesis: a review of current diagnosis and treatment options. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2015; 49(7):550 558. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25874755. Accessed 5/15/2018.
        7. Camilleri M. Gastroparesis: Etiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosi. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate; June, 2017; https://www.uptodate.com/contents/gastroparesis-etiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis.
        8. Jung HK, Choung RS, Locke GR III, et. al.. The incidence, prevalence, and outcomes of pateints with gastroparesis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1996 to 2006. Gastroenterology. 2009; 136 (4):1225-1233. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2705939/. Accessed 5/15/2018.
        9. Tang DM, Friedenberg FK. Gastroparesis:approach, diagnostic evaluation, and management.. Dis Mon.. 2011; 57(2):74-101. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21329779. Accessed 5/15/2018.
        10. Hewitt AN, Levine MS, Rubesin SE, Laufer I.. Gastric bezoars: reassessment of clinical and radiographic findings in 19 patients.. Br J Radiol. 2009; 82(983):901-907. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(gastric%20bezoars)%20AND%20hewitt. Accessed 5/15/2018.
        11. Levin AA, Levine MS, Rubesin SE, Laufer I. An 8 year review of barium studies in the diagnosis of gastroparesis.. Clin Radiol. 2008; 639(4):407-414. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(gastroparesis)%20AND%20Levin%20AA. Accessed 5/15/2018.
        12. Navas CM, Patel NK, Lacy BE.. Gastroparesis: medical and therapeutic advances.. Dig Dis Sci. 2017; 62(9):2231-2240. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(gastroparesis)%20AND%20Navas. Accessed 5/15/2018.
        13. Bharadwaj S., Meka K., Tandon P., et.al.. Management of gastroparesis-associated malnutrition. J. Dig Dis.. 2016; 17(5):285-294. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(gastroparesis)%20AND%20Bharadwaj. Accessed 5/15/2018.