Rare Infectious Disease News

Disease Profile

Hypoaldosteronism

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

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ICD-10

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Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Summary

Hypoaldosteronism is a condition characterized by the shortage (deficiency) or impaired function of a hormone called aldosterone. The symptoms of this condition include low sodium (hyponatremia), too much potassium (hyperkalemia), and a condition where the body produces too much acid (metabolic acidosis). These symptoms may cause muscle weakness, nausea, heart palpitations, irregular heartbeat, and abnormal blood pressure.[1][2]

Hypoaldosteronism may be described as hyporeninemic (low renin level) or hyperreninemic (high renin level) based on the amount of another chemical produced in the kidneys called renin. Hypoaldosteronism can be caused by other health conditions or medications. Individuals with diabetes, kidney disease, primary adrenal insufficiency, lead poisoning, or severe illness can develop hypoaldosteronism. Certain medications, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, heparin or medications used to treat heart failure can cause hypoaldosteronism. There are rare forms of congenital hypoaldosteronism that can be inherited in families.[1][2][3] 

This condition is diagnosed based on the symptoms and confirmed by various blood tests (plasma renin activity, serum aldosterone, and serum cortisol)[2] The exact incidence of hypoaldosteronism is unknown. This condition is treated depending on the underlying cause for the condition.

Treatment

Treatment for hypoaldosteronism depends on the underlying condition. Affected individuals are often advised to follow a lowpotassium diet with liberal sodium intake. People with hypoaldosteronism should typically avoid ACE inhibitors and potassium-sparing diuretics. Individuals with hypoaldosteronism and a deficiency of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones are usually given fludrocortisone. People with hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism are frequently given furosemide to correct hyperkalemia.[4][5]

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

In-Depth Information

  • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.

References

  1. Knicely, DH, Sabet Amin S. Hypoaldosteronism. Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. Updated May 2016; https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547067/all/Hypoaldosteronism.
  2. Young WF. Etiology, diagnosis and treatment of hypoaldosteronism. UpToDate. May 2016; https://www.uptodate.com/contents/etiology-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hypoaldosteronism-type-4-rta.
  3. Sondheimer J. Hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism. Medscape. Feb. 21, 2018; https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/242494-overview.
  4. Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2010. Phildelphia: Mosby; 2009;
  5. Ferri FF. Practical Guide to the Care of the Medical Patient, 7th ed. Philadelphia: Mosby; 2007;

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